More information: Amphitheater-headed canyons formed by megaflooding at Malad Gorge, Idaho, PNAS, Published online before print December 16, 2013, DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1312251111AbstractMany bedrock canyons on Earth and Mars were eroded by upstream propagating headwalls, and a prominent goal in geomorphology and planetary science is to determine formation processes from canyon morphology. A diagnostic link between process and form remains highly controversial, however, and field investigations that isolate controls on canyon morphology are needed. Here we investigate the origin of Malad Gorge, Idaho, a canyon system cut into basalt with three remarkably distinct heads: two with amphitheater headwalls and the third housing the active Wood River and ending in a 7% grade knickzone. Scoured rims of the headwalls, relict plunge pools, sediment-transport constraints, and cosmogenic (3He) exposure ages indicate formation of the amphitheater-headed canyons by large-scale flooding ∼46 ka, coeval with formation of Box Canyon 18 km to the south as well as the eruption of McKinney Butte Basalt, suggesting widespread canyon formation following lava-flow diversion of the paleo-Wood River. Exposure ages within the knickzone-headed canyon indicate progressive upstream younging of strath terraces and a knickzone propagation rate of 2.5 cm/y over at least the past 33 ka. Results point to a potential diagnostic link between vertical amphitheater headwalls in basalt and rapid erosion during megaflooding due to the onset of block toppling, rather than previous interpretations of seepage erosion, with implications for quantifying the early hydrosphere of Mars. Credit: Jim Cash/Idaho Geological Survey Gorges and especially canyons inspire awe and wonder in most who view them, followed by introspection and inevitably questions regarding how such a spectacle might have come about. Up till now, the most common answer has been simple erosion—water flowing over a long enough period of time can cut even the hardest of rock. More recently, however, new evidence has suggested that some gorges were actually created by groundwater movement. And now, in this new effort, the research team suggests that some of them might have come about due to massive floods.To learn more about the origins of Malad Gorge, the team traveled there and collected rock samples from several sites, focusing most specifically on what are known as amphitheater-headed canyons—where the walls of the canyon run straight up and down, and the area around them forms what look like an amphitheater. The prevailing view has been that they form due to erosion. But in their study of the isotopic makeup of the rock samples, they found that two different amphitheater-headed canyons just 11 miles apart were roughly the same age, suggesting something other than erosion was at play. Next, they found that a volcanic eruption that had led to the formation of nearby Butte Basalt had occurred at roughly the same time as well. This led to the team developing a theory that suggests the volcanic eruption and subsequent lava flow caused a change in the course of a river that existed at that time, causing massive flooding of the entire area for some period of time—enough time to have carved out the heads of Woody’s Cove and Stubby Canyon.The researchers note that their findings may explain gorge and cavern formation in other places as well, including other planets, such as some of those on Mars. © 2013 Phys.org Geologist investigates canyon carved in just three days in Texas flood Journal information: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Explore further Citation: Study of Idaho canyons suggests they were the result of massive flooding not erosion (2013, December 17) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2013-12-idaho-canyons-result-massive-erosion.html (Phys.org) —A team of researchers is proposing that Idaho’s Malad Gorge and two of its three unique heads were created by a massive flood 46,000 years ago. In their paper published in Proceeding of the National Academy of Sciences, the team members from California Institute of Technology describe a field study they undertook of the area and how their findings suggest the gorge was created by a flood, not erosion as has been previously thought. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
, Physical Review Letters © 2018 Phys.org The new material science paradigm was called “metamaterials,” from the Greek word metamorphosis to denote a change of condition. Metamaterial researchers seek to construct new materials from artificial objects with properties beyond the conventional. Decades later, the work continues to attract new interest due to advancements in the field of metamaterials, which include metadevices that are logical extensions of the concept of exploiting functionalities inherent to the metamaterial framework. The field has strikingly progressed in recent years from transformation optics to manipulating electromagnetic properties and inducing transparency to create invisibility cloaks, generating tremendous attention, while moving toward tunable, switchable, nonlinear and sensing functionalities. In practice, the photonic devices have broad implications with potential to meet increasing demands for faster information transfer by removing the bottleneck of fibre-based optical telecommunication networks, and even enabling military camouflage. The tasks can be accomplished with strong, fast nonlinearities for switching light with light, and improved control of the electromagnetic properties of metamaterials with external stimuli such as electric signals. Now writing in Scientific Reports, Cheng-Wei Qiu and co-workers have developed an experimental method to incorporate multiple functions into one passive Laplacian direct current (DC) metadevice using light illumination without physical contact. To demonstrate the proof of concept, the team of scientists fabricated a network in which the measurement data agreed exceptionally well with the theoretical predictions and simulation results. The experiment was enabled by an analogy between electrically conducting materials and resistor networks. The researchers sought to design, fabricate and test a metadevice using the circuit theory. The ability to manipulate steady currents by controlling anisotropic conductivities has many potential applications; the focus in the study was to devise light programmable cloaking, full illusion and partial illusion to enable camouflage. The proposed scheme may open new avenues toward non-contact multiphysical control of functions for all kinds of Laplacian fields, including DC magnetic fields and thermal fields. Similar results were observed for the performance of the proposed light controlled metadevice, showing excellent agreement between the experiment and the simulation. By design, the metadevice was expected to act as an illusion device in bright field light (transform an actual perception into an arbitrarily pre-controlled perception) and become invisible in dark field (experimentally achieved using an opaque material to cover the device). The metadevice was able to switch between cloaking and illusion, within a response time of 0.2 seconds, based on light illumination. In addition, the authors were able to demonstrate partial illusion when part of the metadevice was exposed to bright field, in which the numerical simulations and measurement data were again in excellent agreement, to demonstrate the controllable and flexible property of the proposed scheme. In the study, the simulations were based on the finite element method (FEM). All resistors were commercial metal film resistors with an accuracy of 1 percent with light sensitive resistors in parallel to realize the proposed light controlled metadevice by the circuit theory. The idea can be extended to other fields governed by Laplace’s equation including magnetic and thermal fields. As a simple demonstration of the proposed theoretical concept, the scientists experimentally realized a metadevice using a resistor network composed of eight resistors, tunable through light illumination, for remote-control without contact. During the experimental verification Han et al., used commercial metal film resistors in parallel to light-dependent resistors to achieve the optically-controlled performance. As a reference they also fabricated a DC cloak, without built-in photoresistors. The experimental setup used a DC power supply with 5 V magnitude as the source and the voltage was measured using a 4.5-digit Multimeter. When the voltage distribution was simulated for the reference DC cloak, the potential distributions outside the cloak restored exactly to those in the homogenous space, to render the central component of the device invisible to the outside observer. Similarly, the measured result for the fabricated reference DC cloak demonstrated excellent cloaking performance in good agreement with its simulation. , Nature Metamaterials to manipulate light: a) the naturally occurring camouflage of a cephalopod that can change skin color and texture in response to an external stimulus and match the external environment, b) an example of a previous Laplacian metadevice connected and controlled by a complex field programmable gate array (FPGA), c) schematic demonstration of a simpler light-programmable illusion metadevice proposed in the study, d) a schematic example showing an illusion created by manipulating the coordinates of light. Credit: Scientific Reports, doi: 10.1038/s41598-018-30612-5 Metamaterial device allows chameleon-like behavior in the infrared To enable negative refraction and related optical illusions, metamaterials are artificially engineered with unique properties that result from their internal physical structures, rather than their chemical composition. The concept is credited to an experiment conducted by the Soviet scientist Victor Veselago in 1968 to show that negatively refracting materials (as opposed to the typically observed positive refractive index) to create a negative index ‘superlens’ could be achieved when both electric permittivity (ε) and magnetic permeability (µ) of a material were negative. Thirty-three years after the conceptual proposal, the pioneering work of physicist John Pendry enabled the development of metamaterials as Veselago imagined—a composite material with negative refractive index providing greatly improved resolution. Journal information: Scientific Reports Explore further Proof-of-concept: a) a photograph of the fabricated light-programmable metadevice combining electrically conducting materials with a resistor network (light-sensitive resistors are seen inset), a reference DC cloak is seen below – fabricated without photoresistors b) schematic illustration of the experimental setup, green lines indicate light-dependent resistors (RL) in parallel to the commercial resistors (R) in the light programmable metadevice, c) the simulated voltage distribution for the reference DC cloak, d) the measured voltage corresponding to (c). Equipotential lines are represented with white color in the panel. Credit: Scientific Reports, doi: 10.1038/s41598-018-30612-5 Citation: Light programmable guidance of direct current fields in Laplacian metadevices (2018, August 29) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2018-08-programmable-guidance-current-fields-laplacian.html More information: Tiancheng Han et al. Light-programmable manipulation of DC field in Laplacian Meta-devices, Scientific Reports (2018). DOI: 10.1038/s41598-018-30612-5Pioneers in metamaterials: John Pendry and Victor Veselago, iopscience.iop.org/article/10. … 978/13/2/020401/meta Allan Boardman, Community Perspective, 2011, J. Optics., IOP Science An ultrathin invisibility skin cloak for visible light www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26383946?dopt=Abstract Ni et al, 2015, Science.Transformation optics and metamaterials. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20414221?dopt=Abstract Chen et al, 2010, Nature Materials.All smoke and metamaterials www.nature.com/articles/460579a John Pendry, News & Views, July 2009, Nature.From metamaterials to metadevices www.nature.com/articles/nmat3431 Zheludev and Kivshar, October 2012, Nature Materials.Experimental realization of a circuit-based broadband illusion optics analogue www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21231465?dopt=Abstract Jiang et al, 2010, Phys. Rev. Lett.Controlling electromagnetic fields science.sciencemag.org/content/312/5781/1780 Pendry et al, 2006, Science.Experimental demonstration of a multiphysics cloak: manipulating heat flux and electric current simultaneously journals.aps.org/prl/abstract/ … ysRevLett.113.205501 Ma et al, 2014, Phys. Rev. Lett..Full control and manipulation of heat signatures: cloaking, camouflage and thermal metamaterials onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/ab … .1002/adma.201304448 Han et al, 2014, Adv. Mater.Experimental realization of a magnetic cloak science.sciencemag.org/content/335/6075/1466 Gömöry et al, 2012, Science.Experiments on active cloaking and illusion for Laplace equation journals.aps.org/prl/abstract/ … ysRevLett.111.173901 Ma et al, 2013, Phys. Rev. Lett..DC electric invisibility cloak journals.aps.org/prl/abstract/ … ysRevLett.109.053902 Yang et al, 2012, Phys. Rev. Lett.Roadmap on transformation optics spiral.imperial.ac.uk:8443/handle/10044/1/57847 McCall M., 2018 Journal of Optics , Nature Materials , Science This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
Dance fly Credit: Heather Proctor This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Explore further European dung-fly females all aflutter for large males Journal information: Proceedings of the Royal Society B A team of researchers with the University of Toronto and the University of Stirling has found that male dance flies prefer to mate with females that have larger abdominal sacs. In their paper published in Proceedings of the Royal Society B, the group describes their study of the insects and what they found out about their mating habits. Dance fly. Credit: David Funk More information: Rosalind L. Murray et al. Sexual selection on multiple female ornaments in dance flies, Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences (2018). DOI: 10.1098/rspb.2018.1525Press release © 2018 Phys.org A closer look revealed that the males displayed preferences—they wanted females who had bigger sacs. And if faced with females of equally sized sacs, they chose the one with the hairier legs.The researchers suggest the preference of the males might be due to the perception that bigger females carry more eggs. But what do the females get in return? The researchers note that when the males choose a mate, they bring along a meal to share with her. And the females mate more than once, so the more mates she attracts, the more she gets to eat. Citation: Male dance flies found to favor females with bigger abdominal air sacs (2018, September 19) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2018-09-male-flies-favor-females-bigger.html Dance flies are a kind of fly that appear to dance in the air during their mating rituals. They do so in swarms, creating a hypnotic scene for human bystanders. In this new effort, the researchers ventured out into the field to observe one species in action— Rhamphomyia longicauda.The researchers note that ornamentation in males of various species as it relates to mating has been extensively documented—less so is ornamentation in females. Female dance flies have abdominal sacs on the sides of their abdomens that they fill with air, possibly to make them look bigger. They also have pinnate leg scales, which look like hairy legs, another feature that can make the female look bigger.In studying the mating behavior of the flies, the researchers found that the females would pull in air just before joining a swarm, and use it to fill their sacs. They also pulled in their legs, forcing them parallel to their abdomens. The researchers describe the result as females that look similar to helicopters in flight. The next part of the dance was up to the males. Each approached the swarm and made assessments of the females they encountered—when a choice was made, the couple engaged and fell out of the swarm.
Darjeeling: While it is the Football World Cup frenzy throughout the globe, Siliguri is eagerly waiting for Sourav and Sachin to make a public appearance.Sourav and Sachin are two male leopards brought to the Bengal Safari in the outskirts of Siliguri. The Park is all set to introduce leopard safari soon. The male leopards were caught from Satali Tea Estate in Alipurduar. They were then kept in the Tiger and Leopard Rescue Centre in South Khayerbari in Jalpaiguri district. Also Read – Heavy rain hits traffic, flightsThey have been kept in a special enclosure in the Bengal Safari Park. “The leopards are in the best of health and spirits. In a few days, after they adjust to the new environment, they will be put in open enclosures and we will start Leopard safari,” stated Binoy Krishan Burman, Forest Minister. Sources state that two more leopards will be brought in from the Cooch Behar division of the Forest Department. A rhinoceros and a giraffe are also scheduled to arrive before the Durga Puja tourist season. Also Read – Speeding Jaguar crashes into Merc, 2 B’deshi bystanders killedThe Park, a brainchild of CM Mamata Banerjee was inaugurated in 2016. It is spread over an area of 200-hectare. At present, the park boasts of elephants, two Royal Bengal tigers, Barking deer, Spotted deer, Sambars, a Rhino, six Gharials, a pair of Himalayan Black Bear and birds. The park at present boasts of a herbivore safari, tiger safari, bear safari and elephant safari. The Bengali Safari Park is the first of its kind in West Bengal. With its exhibits and elephant rides, it attracts a large number of visitors both local residents and tourists alike.
Kolkata: Two dreaded criminals tried to flee police custody by hurling bombs and firing several rounds of bullet just before being produced in the court. Though one of the accused took off, the other one was nabbed immediately.According to locals, two criminals identified as Shaikh Munna and Karna Bera were being taken to Kanthi fast track court under judicial custody.Around 12:30 pm, the prisoner van of the Purba Medinipur Police arrived at the court premises with six under-trial prisoner including Bera and Munna. Also Read – Rain batters Kolkata, cripples normal lifeAs soon as a police personnel opened the door of the van, one person waiting close to the van hurled a bomb. Another person tried to snatch Bera and Munna from the van.Police sources informed that two persons were waiting with two motorcycles for the prisoner van to arrive at the court premises. When one of them was hurling bombs, the other one passed a firearm to Karna and Munna. All of them tried flee but failed as one of the motorcycles broke down. Sensing danger, one of the accused tried to take some else’s motorcycle but failed to do so as the owner ran away with the keys. Also Read – Speeding Jaguar crashes into Mercedes car in Kolkata, 2 pedestrians killedHaving no other way, all four of them tried leave on the one motorcycle they were left with. While on the motorcycle, Bera and Munna hurled bombs and fired at least eight rounds of bullet.Six persons including five police personnel and a staff from the court were injured by the bullets and the bombs.But their plan was partly foiled as Bera fell down on road as soon as the motorcycle started moving. However, his accomplishes fled and he tried to get to a safe place by running aimlessly. In Kanthi bazar area, he hid in a house but was traced by police personnel as he was being followed. A large number of police personnel surrounded the house and Bera could not escape. He was arrested from there.Bera has several cases of murder, robbery, dacoity on his head. He is also accused of murdering a police constable identified as Nabakumar Maity at Mahisadal a few years ago. He tried to flee jail several times but failed.
Darjeeling: A 20-member Bangladesh military team is on a visit to Trishakti Corps of the Indian Army stationed at Sukna in Darjeeling. The visit of military delegation is aimed at fostering a closer cooperation between both the armies.On arrival at Phulbari Border Outpost on Indo-Bangladesh border in Jalapiguri, 9 km away from Siliguri, the team led by Major General AHS Hasan was welcomed by the officers of the Indian Army. Thereafter, they proceeded to the Indian Army station. During their 5-day long stay, the delegation will visit the Indian Army formations and units to brief on various initiatives on military training by the Indian Army. Also Read – Rain batters Kolkata, cripples normal lifeThey will also be familiarised with training in mountain warfare and will be shown various training institutes, including the world famous Himalayan Mountaineering Institute, Darjeeling. Sports and cultural events are also being organised for the visiting team. The team will return to Bangladesh on November 18. “The bonhomie and cooperation developed through such visits would go a long way towards enhancing the spirit of mutual understanding and friendship in the years to come,” stated an army release.
The great artistes and legends, Raja and Radha Reddy learned choreography in the 1960’s. The Reddys were amongst the twenty two star dancers from across the world who were invited to perform at The All Star Ballet Gala Festival. They are also the recipients of Padma Shree and Padma Bhushan, Sangeet Natak Akademi and Nritya Choodamani Awards. The ‘Parampara Series’- National Festival of Music and Dance, which is conducted just before the withering autumn, has stood firm for the last 19 years and is now synonymous with Delhi’s annual cultural scene. Over time, ‘Parampara’ has blended concerts by presenting classical geniuses under creative themes giving uniquely fresh approach to otherwise traditional arts forms. Also Read – Add new books to your shelfWhat do you have to say about the westernised dance forms? Do you think that India is losing out in its traditional dance forms?Each dance form has its own beauty. Be it classical or Western, each form represents the culture and ethos of a particular region or a group of people. The presentation of Indian dance styles in films, has exposed the range of dance forms in India to a global audience. We don’t copy from international dancing styles like salsa, jazz or any other. Our style of dancing is original and graceful. India is not losing out in its traditional dance forms. In earlier times dancers just showcased their talents. But now, with time, the styles of dancing have evolved such that there is more of showing-off instead of putting forth the actual talent. Also Read – Over 2 hours screen time daily will make your kids impulsiveWith experience spanning over more than five decades, what do you think is the most needed factor in practising such dance forms?Dance and music are of great importance to the culture of India. Both arts are extremely old and have close links not only with each other but also with religion. In my opinion, if a person wants to learn the actual dance forms then he or she must always learn from the gurus. You cannot learn through media by watching videos on television or on YouTube. guru shishya parampara should be followed which means a guru should be everything for his shishya and every student must follow his or her guru. What do you have to say about the young talent of your institute? Natya Tarangini, our institute in Delhi, is popular globally. Here, we not only teach students our style of dancing but we also groom them into beautiful people, teach them about the values, our great heritage and how to respect elders. They also learn the art of carrying themselves as confident citizens of our country. Do you see a decline in number of students interested in the classical dance forms?No. Lots of children come to our institute. I feel that students are developing more interest in classical dance forms these days.How would you describe your journey so far?Established 30 years ago, Natya Tarangini is like our child that has now grown into something much bigger. We sacrificed a lot in our times and our hard work paid off. Today, our names have become synonymous with Kuchipudi. Please tell us something about your upcoming performance in the 20th edition of ‘Parampara Series’.We hand pick our artistes. We believe in quality and bring great artistes to the stage so that more and more Rasikas (Art lovers) can enjoy and appreciate the varied, beautiful forms of art. This year, we will showcase performances of the younger generation – by Yamini and Bhavana Reddy, who are also Kuchipudi dancers.
Wives who have a romantic view of marriage are less likely to do volunteer work for the wider community, leading their husbands to volunteer less as well, says a study.The researchers focused on whether couples took a “soul mate” view of marriage, making it their top priority in life; or whether they held a more traditional view, placing additional values on other functions of marriage such as raising children and fulfilling financial needs.“Wives who take a more romantic view of marriage appear to seek (emotional) satisfaction primarily through husbands, which might take couples’ time and energy away from their involvement in the community,” the researchers wrote. But husbands’ romantic view of marriage was associated with neither their own nor their wives’ volunteering, the study found. Also Read – Add new books to your shelfFor the study, Young-Il Kim from Baylor University and Jeffrey Dew from Brigham Young University, both in the US, analysed data from the Survey of Marital Generosity, a recent US national sample of 1,368 married couples ages 18 to 45. Participants were asked about their views of marriage, how often they volunteered, how much time they spent solely with each other and how often they attended religious services.The study, published in the journal Sociological Perspectives, found that wives’ view of the marriage as “soul mates” was associated with less volunteering of both wife and husband, but a man’s having a soul mate view of marriage was not associated with volunteering by either spouse.Time spent alone with one’s spouse was positively associated with husbands’ reports of their own volunteering.
Is your child lacking in mental skills? Take him or her for horse riding classes as it may lead to improved cognitive skills such as enhanced learning, memory and problem-solving, researchers suggest.A new study showed that the effects of vibrations produced by horses during horse riding leads to the activation of the sympathetic nervous system, which may improve learning in children. Horse steps produce three-dimensional accelerations and the movement of the horse’s pelvis may provide motor and sensory inputs to the human body. Also Read – Add new books to your shelf”Some of the differences among the rider’s performances might be due to these accelerations,” said Mitsuaki Ohta, Professor at Tokyo University in Japan. “We wanted to look into these effects because previous studies have demonstrated the benefits of horseback riding with respect to enhancing physical health and the mental effects, but few studies have addressed the effects of horseback riding on children and the mechanisms underlying how riding affects humans,” Ohta explained. Also Read – Over 2 hours screen time daily will make your kids impulsiveThe findings, published in the journal Frontiers in Public Health, showed that riding on some horses greatly improved the ability of children to perform behavioural tasks and could improved their cognitive abilities. These are brain-based skills of which an improvement can lead to enhanced learning, memory and problem-solving, the researchers said. For the study, the team examined the effects of horseback riding on the performance of children by having them complete simple tests directly before and after horse riding, while measuring the children’s heart rate in response to movements created by the horses. The behavioural reactions of the children were tested using a ‘Go/No-go’ test, which determined the children’s ability to respond in a situation.
Accusing the Congress of having a hand in the Tehelka sting ‘Operation West End’ – which led to George Fernandes’s resignation as Defence Minister – former Samata Party president Jaya Jaitly claims that Congress President Sonia Gandhi had written to then Finance Minister P. Chidambaram to ensure that the alleged financiers of Tehelka are not treated in an “unfair” or “unjust” manner. She has made these claims in her upcoming autobiography Life among the ‘Scorpions: Memoirs of a Woman in Indian Politics’, which came out on November 7. She has presented a copy of the letter in the book. It also has a copy of a two-page letter from First Global, the alleged financiers of Tehelka, petitioning Sonia Gandhi, the then Chairperson of National Advisory Council. Jaitly also recalls that when George Fernandes insisted on resigning, L.K. Advani and Jaswant Singh advised against it. Soon after, Jaswant Singh brought the Prime Minister’s message to the Defence Minister, accepting his resignation. George Fernandes was only too eager to oblige, she says. However, Jaitly was miffed that she had also been asked to resign by Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee, while she had made her stand clear in her own party that she had done nothing wrong and would not resign. Also Read – Add new books to your shelfShe also claims that the Congress, which was then in opposition, was the ultimate beneficiary of the sting by Tehelka, which allegedly received hawala funds. Jaitly also recounts her appalling experiences during the investigations under the Commission of Inquiry, instituted after the Tehelka sting. When the matter was suddenly and arbitrarily sent to a court, she says she feared that the judge, who convicted former BJP president Bangaru Laxman of bribery and was hearing her case too, would eventually convict her irrespective of her arguments. Also Read – Over 2 hours screen time daily will make your kids impulsiveIn the memoirs, Jaya Jaitly also recollects her meeting with alleged arms middleman Christian Michel, of how he bragged about helping prime minister P.V. Narasimha Rao to spy on Sonia Gandhi and then went on to offer her an opportunity to make a ‘huge pile of money’ for the Samata Party of which she was president at the time. In the context of her revelations on how defence deals are done in India, Jaitly recalls a meeting with a senior Congressman where he informed her that people were willing to pay ‘twenty lakh rupees to have a cup of tea’ with her. When Jaitly asked him why he explained that ‘it cuts the competition’. This was when the first NDA Government was in power with the Samata Party as its key ally, with George Fernandes as the Union Defence Minister. With regard to the BJP, she says that L.K. Advani ensured that the BJP under him dispelled the notion of being a Hindu-only party which led to a smooth functioning of the alliance and the NDA government. She, however, regrets the fact that BJP’s ‘arrogance’ cost the NDA the 2004 elections as it failed to get allies which, in contrast, the Congress, managed quite well. Jaitly also reminisces about the 1984 anti-Sikh riots calling them one of the most horrific instances of gruesome violence unleashed in an organized manner against a community. Further, she recalls her experiences of working extensively for the relief of the Sikh victims at the time. She refuses to make any comparisons between the 1984 riots and the 2002 Gujarat riots and claims that during the Gujarat Riots, the then state Chief Minister Narendra Modi was ‘in constant touch with George Fernandes’ [the then Defence Minister] to quell the violence. Attacking her former colleague in the Samata Party, Nitish Kumar, for not being supportive of her initiatives as party president or even as a handicrafts activist, Jaitly reveals that Kumar ditched her for a Rajya Sabha seat which he had promised to George Fernandes. She also gives instances in her memoirs where Kumar put his self-interest above the party’s. She criticizes Lalu Yadav for projecting himself to be secular by stopping Advani’s rath yatra while having taken no action against the real perpetrators of the Bhagalpur riots after coming to power. However, Jaitly appreciates the fact that Samata Party’s fight against Lalu Yadav in Bihar ensured that he was not in a position to claim the high chair of prime ministership and instead, the Janata Dal leader from the south, H.D. Deve Gowda became the prime minister in United Front government. Lastly, Jaitly in her memoirs also reveals details of the allegations of match-fixing against former Indian cricketer Ajay Jadeja, who is also her son-in-law. Jaitly narrates how IT officials had landed at her home, thinking it to be Ajay’s, but gone back empty-handed.