Bar Council Of India Moves Karnataka HC Challenging 25% Domicile Reservation In NLSIU [Read Petition]

first_imgNews UpdatesBar Council Of India Moves Karnataka HC Challenging 25% Domicile Reservation In NLSIU [Read Petition] Mustafa Plumber12 Aug 2020 12:14 AMShare This – xThe Bar Council of India (BCI) has moved the Karnataka High Court seeking to declare that the National Law School of India (Amendment) Act, 2020, which permits 25 percent horizontal domicile reservation for students of Karnataka, as ultra vires to the Constitution of India. The petition claims that without prior consultation of the BCI, the State has enacted the amendment to the Act,…Your free access to Live Law has expiredTo read the article, get a premium account.Your Subscription Supports Independent JournalismSubscription starts from ₹ 599+GST (For 6 Months)View PlansPremium account gives you:Unlimited access to Live Law Archives, Weekly/Monthly Digest, Exclusive Notifications, Comments.Reading experience of Ad Free Version, Petition Copies, Judgement/Order Copies.Subscribe NowAlready a subscriber?LoginThe Bar Council of India (BCI) has moved the Karnataka High Court seeking to declare that the National Law School of India (Amendment) Act, 2020, which permits 25 percent horizontal domicile reservation for students of Karnataka, as ultra vires to the Constitution of India. The petition claims that without prior consultation of the BCI, the State has enacted the amendment to the Act, providing for horizontal domicile reservation across General, Scheduled Caste and Scheduled Tribes categories. Based on this, the National Law School of India University (NLSIU) has issued a revised notification on seat matrix and provided horizontally 25 percent reservation for students of Karnataka and 5 percent concession on the general merit cut off score. The petition further states that the state that this amendment has nullified the judgement of the Karnataka High Court in the case of Lokasha vs Convener, Common Law Admission Test (CLAT-2009). Further, it is said that the State of Karnataka has not provided domicile reservation in its own State Law University, thus subjecting NLSIU to such hostile discrimination. It is also said that the amended Act is a serious interference and infringement into the statutory functioning of the petitioner (BCI). The petition argues that from the year 1996 to 2017, NLSIU has produced 20 Rhodes scholars, out of those seven are from Karnataka. The true national character of the institution is manifest not just in its statutory declared objectives but in practice and its governance structure. In March, the Karnataka State Assembly passed the National Law School Of India (Amendment) Act, 2020, which received the Karnataka Governor’s assent on May 4. As per this amendment, NLSIU should reserve horizontally twenty-five percent of seats for ‘students of Karnataka’.The amendment inserts the following proviso in Section 4 of the National Law School of India Act :- “Notwithstanding anything contained in this Act and the regulations made thereunder, the school shall reserve horizontally twenty-five percent of seats for students of Karnataka.” As per the explanation of this section, “student of Karnataka” means a student who has studied in any one of the recognized educational institutions in the State for a period of not less than ten years preceding to the qualifying examination.” The plea also prays for setting aside the revised seat matrix for BA LLB (Hons) and LLM Programmes issued by NLSIU by issuing the notification dated August 4. Two other petitions filed by individuals raising the same challenge will be heard on August 13, by a bench headed by Justice Krishna Dixit.Click here to download petitionRead Petition  Subscribe to LiveLaw, enjoy Ad free version and other unlimited features, just INR 599 Click here to Subscribe. All payment options available.loading….Next Storylast_img read more

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Santos signs LNG supply deal with Mitsubishi unit

first_imgSantos will supply Diamond Gas International with 1.5 million tonnes of LNG annually from its Barossa project, located offshore Australia, for ten years Santos will supply 1.5 million tonnes of LNG per annum from the Barossa project for an initial period of ten years. (Credit: drpepperscott230 from Pixabay) Australian energy company Santos has entered into an agreement to supply liquefied natural gas (LNG) from its Barossa project to Diamond Gas International (DGI), a wholly-owned subsidiary of Mitsubishi.Under the long-term supply and purchase agreement (SPA), Santos will supply 1.5 million tonnes of LNG per annum from the Australian offshore project for an initial period of ten years with extension options.The contract will support in achieving a final investment decision on Barossa, expected in the first half of next year.Santos managing director and CEO Kevin Gallagher said: “Santos is delighted to establish a long-term relationship with Mitsubishi, a major Japanese company with deep LNG expertise.“The SPA delivers a firm LNG offtake arrangement which represents over 80% of Santos’ equity LNG volume from the Barossa project at our expected 50% interest level following the previously announced sell-down to JERA, while the JKM-indexation provides portfolio balance to our existing oil-linked LNG offtake agreements from GLNG and PNG LNG.“It also represents the first Santos long-term equity LNG sale from one of our major LNG projects, demonstrating our marketing capability to meet customer needs in the market.”Santos has a 62.5% interest in the Barossa joint venture, while its partners SK E&S owns the remaining 37.5% stake.The two companies to explore carbon neutral LNG opportunities from BarossaSantos and Mitsubishi have also signed a memorandum of understanding (MoU) to explore opportunities for carbon neutral LNG from Barossa project.The scope of the MoU includes tapping opportunities associated with Santos’ Moomba carbon capture and storage (CCS) project, and development of zero emissions hydrogen among others.The FID-ready Moomba CCS project will have the capacity to store 1.7 million tonnes of carbon dioxide per annum in depleted natural gas reservoirs, subject to government approvals.Last month, Santos secured environmental approval for its AUD3.6bn ($2.64bn) Narrabri Gas Project in the Gunnedah Basin in northwest New South Wales (NSW).last_img read more

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Ireland holds off on folic acid

first_imgIreland’s food safety body has advised against the mandatory fortification of bread with folic acid.The implementation group on folic acid fortification said there would be no benefit to public health, because food manufacturers were now adding it to dairy spreads, fruit juices, milk, yoghurts, soups and cereal bars.England’s Food Standards Agency (FSA) now has the results of two studies looking at the effect of folic acid on cancer and heart disease, and is likely to make its recommendation following a committee meeting in June. It had previously agreed flour should be fortified, before being encouraged by the chief medical officer to consider more studies.However Alex Waugh, director general of nabim, said: “The two food bodies do talk and it may be that they sit down and have a discussion later in the year, but at the moment the tide is turning against inclusion in England and Ireland.”Ireland’s national committee on folic acid fortification had recommended in 2005 that all bread should be fortified with folic acid on a mandatory basis. However, the implementation group found that women of child-bearing age now received 30% more folate in their diet, due to voluntary fortification across the food sector. This was coupled with a reduction in the incidence of neural tube defects from 1/1.5 to 0.93 per 1,000 births during that time. It also pointed to preliminary and inconclusive data, which suggested a link between high levels of folic acid and certain cancers.Alan Reilly, chairman of the implementation group and deputy chief executive of the Food Safety Authority of Ireland, said the potential link between excessive folic acid intake and cancer was “inconsistent and inconclusive”, adding that new data was likely to be available later this year. The Department of Health in Ireland is considering the report.last_img read more

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Noncancerous cells carry weight

first_imgIn recent years investigators have discovered that breast tumors are influenced by more than just the cancer cells within them. A variety of noncancerous cells, which in many cases constitute the majority of the tumor mass, form what is known as the “tumor microenvironment.” This sea of noncancerous cells and the products they deposit appear to play key roles in tumor pathogenesis.Among the key accomplices in the tumor microenvironment are mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), a group of adult progenitor cells, which have been shown to help breast cancers maneuver and spread to other parts of the body.Now, new research sheds further light on how this spreading is happening. Led by investigators at Harvard-affiliated Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center (BIDMC), the research demonstrates that the lysyl oxidase (LOX) gene is spurred to production in cancer cells as a result of their contact with MSCs, and once produced, can help ensure the spread of otherwise weakly metastatic cancer cells from primary tumors to the lung and bones. Described online in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS), this discovery not only provides key insights into the basic biology of tumor formation, but also offers a potential new direction in the pursuit of therapies for the treatment of bone metastasis.“We don’t have a lot of therapies that can target breast cancer once it has metastasized, particularly once cancer cells have lodged in the bone,” says senior author Antoine Karnoub, an investigator in the Department of Pathology at BIDMC and assistant professor of pathology at Harvard Medical School. “When breast cancer cells reach the skeleton, one way in which they cause damage is by breaking down bone tissue, which results in the bone’s rich matrix releasing numerous factors. These factors, in turn, feed the cancer cells, setting in motion a vicious cycle that leaves patients susceptible to fractures, pain, and further metastasis.”MSCs are nonhematopoietic progenitor cells predominantly produced in the bone marrow that generate bone, cartilage, fat, and fibrous connective tissue. They additionally support immune cell development and are recruited to inflammatory sites throughout the body to help shut down immune responses and regenerate damaged tissues, as might occur during wound healing. Several years ago, as a postdoctoral researcher at the Whitehead Institute of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Karnoub began exploring the idea that MSCs were migrating to tumors after mistaking the cancer sites for inflammatory lesions in need of healing.“We discovered that once MSCs had reached the tumor sites, they were actually helping in cancer metastasis, causing primary cancer cells to spread to other sites in the body,” he explains. In this new research, Karnoub wanted to find out — in greater molecular detail — how breast cancer cells respond to the influences of MSCs in order to better understand how cancer cells cross talk with recruited cells in the microenvironment.His scientific team first embarked on a straightforward experiment. “We took two dishes of cells, cancer cells and MSCs, and mixed them together,” Karnoub explains. After three days, the researchers removed the cancer cells and studied them to see how they had changed.“We found that the lysyl oxidase gene was highly upregulated in the cancer cells,” Karnoub says. “It turns out that when a cancer cell comes in contact with an MSC, it flips on this LOX gene, turning it up by a factor of about 100. So our next question was: What happens to the cancer cells when they encounter this boost of LOX that they themselves have produced?”The answer, as revealed in subsequent experiments, was that LOX was setting in motion a cell program called epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). During EMT, cancer cells that usually clump together undergo a transformation into cells that exhibit decreased adhesion to their neighbors and go their own way. As a result, these cancerous cells are able to migrate, significantly enhancing their ability to metastasize.“When we put these cells back into mice, they not only formed tumors that metastasized to the lung, but also to the bone,” says Karnoub. “This makes you wonder whether the cancer cells in primary tumors have become so acclimated to interacting with bone-derived MSCs that they can now grow more easily in the bone once they leave the tumor.”The investigators also wanted to find out if, by going through the EMT process, cancer cells were also acquiring the phenotypes of another highly aggressive feature of malignant cancer cells, those of cancer stem cells within the cores of most tumors.“Cancer stem cells are believed to be responsible for the resurgence of tumors following chemotherapy treatment, and an increasing body of science is focused on understanding how CSCs function and how they originate,” says Karnoub. “The processes of EMT and CSC formation have been described as being closely coupled, and we asked whether LOX might be regulating CSC phenotypes, just as it was regulating EMT. To our surprise, this was not the case. This tells us that pathways that were once thought to be intimately intertwined and commonly tweaked may, in fact, be separate, and now we can start to tease out the respective circuitries with a bit more clarity.”Lastly, the investigators identified the mechanism that was enabling LOX to be turned on from outside the cell, a set of molecules called hyaluronic acid (HA) and CD44. “It turns out that the MSCs provide the HA while the cancer cells provide the CD44, and they work in tandem like a lock and key to upregulate LOX expression,” explains Karnoub, adding that antagonists to HA and CD44, already in extensive investigations and clinical exploration, might be of increased use from a clinical standpoint, perhaps in managing bone metastasis.To read the full story.last_img read more

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